Metastasis is a term used to describe cancer spread within the body. Cancer cells, unlike normal body cells, have the unique ability to migrate and grow outside their site of origin. When this happens, it is called metastatic cancer or sometimes stage 4 cancer. They are cancer cells that break off from primary cancer, migrate […]
The immune system is the body’s defence against pathogens, infectious organisms and other substances that may harm the body and the individual. It comprises special cells and organs to keep the entire body system healthy. The primary cells involved are the leukocytes or the white blood cells. These are produced in bone marrows. Certain conditions,
Recurrent cancers are cancers that return after original cancer has been cured by treatment. Recurrence may be of three types.It may occur in the same area (local recurrence), it may occur in the same region (regional recurrence), and it may recur at a completely different and distant site (distant recurrence).
Urethral cancer is the cancer of the urethra. The urethra is a tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Females have shorter urethras than males. Cancer starts at the urethra spreading towards the adjacent structures and nearby lymph nodes. It happens more in women than men, with squamous cell
Cancer grading indicates how fast the cancer is developing. The doctor examines the biopsy under a microscope to calculate the cancer cells’ stage. Grading is done based on the differentiation of the cells. Differentiation is a process that shows the development of the cell. Cancer cells are poorly differentiated; thus, they stand out from normal
Familial cancer syndrome is an individual’s genetic predisposition to having a certain kind of cancer which can usually happen at a younger age. It is also called hereditary cancer syndrome. The most common hereditary cancers include breast, gynecologic (ovarian, cervical, etc.), colorectal, and endocrine (pancreatic, thyroid, etc.).
Definition The enlarged liver, also known as hepatomegaly, is not a clinical disease, but it is the enlargement of the liver more than its standard size for the age and sex of the individual. Different medical conditions can cause the liver to enlarge, which can be measured accurately with an abdominal ultrasound. Causes and Risk
Diarrhoea is the body’s way of naturally flushing out the toxins in the digestive system. It is characterized by passing three or more loose, watery stools daily. Technically, one should not stop this phenomenon from happening and should instead focus on how to avoid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. However, suppose it becomes chronic. In that
This refers to physical wasting due to a particular health condition. Cachexia is usually seen in patients with advanced stages of cancer, AIDS, and other chronic diseases. Individuals with cachexia exhibit loss of weight, fat and muscle mass, thereby experiencing weakness. Cachexia and anorexia almost always occur together. However, cachexia can also happen to those
Approximately 80% of patients present with gross painless fresh blood in the urine, while the rest present with microscopic hematuria, seen only after a sample of urine is submitted for microscopic study. Other symptoms of bladder cancer include difficulty urinating, palpation of a mass in the lower abdominal area, pain in the abdomen due to